VEHICULAR EMMISSIONS AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM IN MINNA

Disclaimer:  The information and opinions expressed on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the ATPS Network.

Posted on 9th July, 2010by Mr. Olumayokun Okelola

 

 At present, not much is known about the overall environmental pollution problem of Niger State, especially the levels of pollution in the major towns of the state. Without a doubt, it is now generally accepted that the menace of environmental pollution poses serious risks to the health of the general populace.

In his study of vehicular emission, environmental and health implications, Enemari (2001) pointed out that vehicular emissions in typical urban centres constitute over 60% of the total pollutant emission compared to what anyone will naturally hope, think or assume. He recommended for proper servicing of vehicles for optimal performance and this should be encouraged. Also, he recommended that the refineries in the country should be fully evaluated with the aim of redesigning them to produce entirely unleaded petrol in the very near future. Furthermore, the use of catalytic converters in vehicles that use unleaded petrol to control photochemical seeding was recommended.

 

Bishop and Stedman (1996) have pioneered and developed an instrument to remotely measure vehicle emissions. In several studies it has been found that about 10% of the fleet generates more than 50% of total emissions of carbon monoxide (CO). Most cars are clean but a small number of malfunctioning or tampered with vehicles produce a major amount of regulated and un-regulated emissions. Idle tests are generally known to be a poor indicator of true emissions. In Finland the periodic inspection intervals have increased and therefore several years can pass without emission testing.

In 2008, the result of a multi-institutional team commissioned by The Department of Energy at The Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI),  led by Dr. Joe Mauderly, to study comparisons of health hazards from engine emissions, materialized. In conjunction with LRRI’s Dr. Jeanclare Seagrave,  Dr. Kevin Whitney (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.), Dr. Barbara Zielinska (Desert Research Institute) the following discoveries were made:

–   Some little-studied hard-to-sample “semi-volatile organic compounds” (SVOCs) caused both lung Sinflammation and cell damage in lungs.

–   By acquired statistics, Dr. Mauderly, discovered that at equal doses, the inflammation caused by normal gasoline and diesel emissions was nearly identical.

–   Thus, considering emission rates and toxicity, emissions from black smocking gasoline, high-emitting diesel and white smoking gasoline vehicles presented approximately 10, 30, and 70 times the health impact per unit of vehicle travel (e.g per mile).

–   He also revealed for the first time, that high emitters contribute even more disproportionately to the public health burden of vehicular emissions.

He then, encouraged researchers to be concerned with measurements of both cancerous and non-cancerous effects, and encouraged on getting high polluting vehicles out of the neighborhoods, for cleaner technologies. Finally Mauderly (1999) highlighted brighter prospect in that more efficient emission control was well underway, and that the study had not yet finished providing valuable information; as determining the specific chemical species in engine emissions that cause the health effects.


ATPS Network in the UK

Disclaimer:  The information and opinions expressed on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the ATPS Network.

Posted on 10th January, 2011by Mrs. Tochukwu Ife-Ogbonna

I am very much impressed with what the ATPS Network is doing in Africa but the irony of the African is that even in the so called developed Western world (s)he is much in need when it comes to scinece, technology and innovation – the core focus of the ATPS.  May be it is time to look West as well.

Mrs Tochukwu Ife-Ogbonna.


Technology appropriate for Africa

Disclaimer:  The information and opinions expressed on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the ATPS Network.

Posted on 17th May, 2012by Mr. DANIEL WASONGA

Africa and Kenya has its 80% population living in rural farms with only 20% in urban, yet it cannot feed its population .This is direct opposite of the Developed countries with only 20% of rural population feeding the rest of 80%. It is time we develop appropriate Agricultural technologies suitable for African Agriculture.


Notable initiatives that can be put in place to foster youth employment in Africa today

Disclaimer:  The information and opinions expressed on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the ATPS Network.

Posted on 14th August, 2012by Mr. Olumayokun Okelola

Such initiatives are no rocket science at all. They are simply the straight lines that connects our ingenuity as a people with the untapped resources on the African continent. When this is done with the right political will. Unemployment will become alien to the African youth because presently, We are a people starving a midst plenty and opportunities. Thank you.


Africa Should not Celebrate Yet on its Growth Prospects

Disclaimer:  The information and opinions expressed on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the ATPS Network.

Posted on 21st November, 2012by Prof. ATPS Admin

Africa’s growth if not driven by a diversified production structure essentially in manufacturing that would deliver quality jobs and raise incomes, would remain trepid, fragile and susceptible to negative shocks, according to Prof. Osita Ogbu, the director of the Institute for Development Studies based at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

While giving a key note address titled The Fragility of the Recent Africa’s Growth and the Opportunity for Creating Jobs through a New Technology and Industrial Policy, Prof. Osita notes that Africa should not celebrate yet about its recent growth and continued prospects.

And, according to his paper, there is an emerging consensus on new industrial and technology policy regime that if well crafted, contextualized and implemented, could stimulate greater manufacturing in Africa and lead to structural change.

Prof. Osita notes that historically, industrial policy in various shades has always been used by every nation to climb the industrialization ladder.

“Unfortunately, Africa’s initial attempts were not very successful. Rather than re-strategize, Africa and those advising Africa abandoned this strategy completely in spite of its being responsible for the basic industrial structure that currently exist,” he said, adding that there is now a greater opportunity for African governments and the organized private sector to work together to address the problems that have hindered the emergence of a dynamic manufacturing sector in Africa.

However, Africa still has a number of opportunities to exploit.

“These opportunities include the emerging consensus in industrial policy, the rising cost of production in China, the youth force in Africa and the existence of basic manufacturing hubs,” said Prof. Osita.

He spoke during the ongoing ATPS 2012 annual conference being held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, under the theme Emerging paradigms, technologies and innovations for sustainable development: global imperatives and African realities which brought together researchers, academia, policy makers and innovators.

The conference is reflecting on a post Rio +20 futures for Africa.

Despite all Africa’s presumed economic growth, Prof. Osita notes that the continent’s growth is still very fragile.

“In spite of the impressive growth rates, Africa’s economic transformation has not occurred, and any talk of structural shift is not backed by evidence,” he observed.

And for Africa to fast track its development and growth agenda, Prof. Osita notes that Africa needs growth based on industrialization and Science, Technology and Innovation (STI).

“There should be a link between STI policies and the economic agenda so that one can be seen to be driving the other,” he said.